Allowing Spacecraft to Think for Themselves
|Sandor Veres with a satellite model at the University of Southampton’s unique test facility.|
The world’s first control system that will allow engineers to program satellites and spacecraft to think for themselves has been developed by scientists from the University of Southampton. The artificially intelligent control system is called ‘sysbrain.’
Using natural language programming (NLP), the software agents can read special English language technical documents on control methods. This gives the vehicles advanced guidance, navigation and feedback capabilities to stop them from crashing into other objects and the ability to adapt during missions, identify problems, carry out repairs and make their own decisions about how best to carry out a task.
Professor Sandor Veres, who is leading the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council-funded project, says: “This is the world’s first publishing system of technical knowledge for machines and opens the way for engineers to publish control instructions to machines directly. As well as spacecrafts and satellites, this innovative technology is transferable to other types of autonomous vehicles, such as autonomous underwater, ground and aerial vehicles.”
To test the control systems that could be applied in a space environment, Veres and his team of engineers constructed a unique test facility and a fleet of satellite models, which are controlled by the sysbrain cognitive agent control system.
The Autonomous Systems Testbed consists of a glass-covered precision-level table, surrounded by a metal framework, which is used to mount overhead visual markers, observation cameras and isolation curtains to prevent any external light sources from interfering with experimentation. Visual navigation is performed using onboard cameras to observe the overhead marker system located above the test area. This replicates how spacecraft would use points in the solar system to determine their orientation.
The perfectly-balanced model satellites, which rotate around a pivot point with mechanical properties similar to real satellites, are placed on the table and glide across it on roller bearings almost without friction to mimic the zero-gravity properties of space. Each model has eight propellers to control movement, a set of inertia sensors and additional cameras to be spatially aware and to see each other. The model’s skeletal robot frame also allows various forms of hardware to be fitted and tested.
Veres adds: “We have invented sysbrains to control intelligent machines. Sysbrain is a special breed of software agents with unique features, such as natural language programming, to create them, human-like reasoning and, most importantly, they can read special English language documents in ‘system English’ or ‘sEnglish’. Human authors of English documents can put them on the Web as publications and sysbrain can read them to enhance their physical and problem-solving skills. This allows engineers to write technical papers directly for sysbrain that control the machines.”