Image: Peter Ma
For the first time, scientists have made star-shaped,
biodegradable polymers that can self-assemble into hollow, nanofiber spheres,
and when the spheres are injected with cells into wounds, these spheres
biodegrade, but the cells live on to form new tissue.
Developing this nanofiber sphere as a cell carrier that
simulates the natural growing environment of the cell is a very significant
advance in tissue repair, says Peter Ma, professor at the Univ. of Michigan
School of Dentistry and lead author of a paper about the research scheduled for
advanced online publication in Nature
Materials. Co-authors are Xiaohua Liu and Xiaobing Jin.
Repairing tissue is very difficult and success is extremely
limited by a shortage of donor tissue, says Ma, who also has an appointment at
the U-M College of Engineering. The procedure gives hope to people with certain
types of cartilage injuries for which there aren’t good treatments now. It also
provides a better alternative to ACI, which is a clinical method of treating
cartilage injuries where the patient’s own cells are directly injected into the
patient’s body. The quality of the tissue repair by the ACI technique isn’t good
because the cells are injected loosely and are not supported by a carrier that
simulates the natural environment for the cells, Ma says.
To repair complex or oddly shaped tissue defects, an
injectable cell carrier is desirable to achieve accurate fit and to minimize
surgery, he says. Ma’s lab has been working on a biomimetic strategy to design
a cell matrix—a system that copies biology and supports the cells as they grow
and form tissue—using biodegradable nanofibers.
Ma says the nanofibrous hollow microspheres are highly
porous, which allows nutrients to enter easily, and they mimic the functions of
cellular matrix in the body. Additionally, the nanofibers in these hollow
microspheres do not generate much degradation byproducts that could hurt the
cells, he says.
The nanofibrous hollow spheres are combined with cells and
then injected into the wound. When the nanofiber spheres, which are slightly
bigger than the cells they carry, degrade at the wound site, the cells they are
carrying have already gotten a good start growing because the nanofiber spheres
provide an environment in which the cells naturally thrive.
This approach has been more successful than the traditional
cell matrix currently used in tissue growth, he says. Until now, there has been
no way to make such a matrix injectable so it’s not been used to deliver cells
to complex-shaped wounds.
During testing, the nanofiber repair group grew as much as
three to four times more tissue than the control group, Ma says. The next step
is to see how the new cell carrier works in larger animals and eventually in
people to repair cartilage and other tissue types.