A compound found in red wine, grapes, and other fruits, and similar in
structure to resveratrol, is able to block cellular processes that allow fat
cells to develop, opening a door to a potential method to control obesity,
according to a Purdue University study.
Kee-Hong Kim, an assistant professor of food science, and Jung Yeon Kwon, a
graduate student in Kim’s laboratory, reported in Journal of Biological Chemistry that the compound piceatannol
blocks an immature fat cell’s ability to develop and grow.
While similar in structure to resveratrol—the compound found in red wine,
grapes and peanuts that is thought to combat cancer, heart disease, and
neurodegenerative diseases—piceatannol might be an important weapon against
obesity. Resveratrol is converted to piceatannol in humans after consumption.
“Piceatannol actually alters the timing of gene expressions, gene
functions and insulin action during adipogenesis, the process in which early
stage fat cells become mature fat cells,” Kim said. “In the presence
of piceatannol, you can see delay or complete inhibition of adipogenesis.”
Over a period of 10 days or more, immature fat cells, called preadipocytes,
go through several stages to become mature fat cells, or adipocytes.
“These precursor cells, even though they have not accumulated lipids,
have the potential to become fat cells,” Kim said. “We consider that
adipogenesis is an important molecular target to delay or prevent fat cell
accumulation and, hopefully, body fat mass gain.”
Kim found that piceatannol binds to insulin receptors of immature fat cells
in the first stage of adipogenesis, blocking insulin’s ability to control cell
cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation.
Piceatannol essentially blocks the pathways necessary for immature fat cells to
mature and grow.
Piceatannol is one of several compounds being studied in Kim’s laboratory
for its health benefits, and it is also present in different amounts in red
grape seeds and skin, blueberries, passion fruit, and other fruits.
Kim would like to confirm his current finding, which is based on a cell
culture system, using an animal model of obesity. His future work would also
include determining methods for protecting piceatannol from degrading so that
concentrations large enough would be available in the bloodstream to stop
adipogenesis or body fat gain.
“We need to work on improving the stability and solubility of
piceatannol to create a biological effect,” Kim said.