The team responsible for the Oscar-nominated visual effects at the center of Christopher Nolan’s epic, Interstellar, have turned science fiction into science fact by providing new insights into the powerful effects of black holes. In a paper published February 13, 2015, in the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity, the team describes the innovative computer code that was used to generate the film’s iconic images of the wormhole, black hole and various celestial objects, and explains how the code has led them to new science discoveries.
Using their code, the Interstellar team, comprising London-based visual effects company Double Negative and Caltech theoretical physicist Kip Thorne, found that, when a camera is close up to a rapidly spinning black hole, peculiar surfaces in space, known as caustics, create more than a dozen images of individual stars and of the thin, bright plane of the galaxy in which the black hole lives. They found that the images are concentrated along one edge of the black hole’s shadow.
These multiple images are caused by the black hole dragging space into a whirling motion and stretching the caustics around themselves many times. It is the first time that the effects of caustics have been computed for a camera near a black hole, and the resulting images give some idea of what a person would see if they were orbiting a hole.
The discoveries were made possible by the team’s computer code, which, as the paper describes, mapped the paths of millions of lights beams and their evolving cross sections as they passed through the black hole’s warped spacetime. The computer code was used to create images of the film’s wormhole and the black hole, Gargantua, and its glowing accretion disk, with unparalleled smoothness and clarity.
It showed portions of the accretion disk swinging up over the top and down under Gargantua’s shadow, and also in front of the shadow’s equator, producing an image of a split shadow that has become iconic for the film.
This weird distortion of the glowing disk was caused by gravitational lensing — a process by which light beams from different parts of the disk, or from distant stars, are bent and distorted by the black hole, before they arrive at the film’s simulated camera.
This lensing happens because the black hole creates an extremely strong gravitational field, literally bending the fabric of spacetime around itself, like a bowling ball lying on a stretched-out bed sheet.
Early in their work on the film, with the black hole encircled within a rich field of distant stars and nebulae instead of an accretion disk, the team found that the standard approach of using just one light ray for one pixel in a computer code — in this instance, for an IMAX picture, a total of 23 million pixels — resulted in flickering as the stars and nebulae moved across the screen.
Co-author of the study and chief scientist at Double Negative, Oliver James, said: “To get rid of the flickering and produce realistically smooth pictures for the film, we changed our code in a manner that has never been done before. Instead of tracing the paths of individual light rays using Einstein’s equations — one per pixel — we traced the distorted paths and shapes of light beams.”
Co-author of the study Kip Thorne said: “This new approach to making images will be of great value to astrophysicists like me. We, too, need smooth images.”
James continued: “Once our code, called DNGR for Double Negative Gravitational Renderer, was mature and creating the images you see in the film Interstellar, we realized we had a tool that could easily be adapted for scientific research.”
In their paper, the team report how they used DNGR to carry out a number of research simulations exploring the influence of caustics on the images of distant star fields as seen by a camera near a fast-spinning black hole.
“A light beam emitted from any point on a caustic surface gets focused by the black hole into a bright cusp of light at a given point,” James continued. “All of the caustics, except one, wrap around the sky many times when the camera is close to the black hole. This sky wrapping is caused by the black hole’s spin, dragging space into a whirling motion around itself like the air in a whirling tornado, and stretching the caustics around the black hole many times.”
As each caustic passes by a star, it either creates two new images of the star as seen by the camera, or annihilates two old images of the star. As the camera orbits the black hole, film clips from the DNGR simulations showed that the caustics were constantly creating and annihilating a huge number of stellar images.
The team identified as many as 13 simultaneous images of the same star, and as many as 13 images of the thin, bright plane of the galaxy in which the black hole lives.
These multiple images were only seen when the black hole was spinning rapidly and only near the side of the black hole where the hole’s whirling space was moving toward the camera, which they deduced was because the space whirl was ‘flinging’ the images outward from the hole’s shadow edge. On the shadow’s opposite side, where space is whirling away from the camera, the team deduced that there were also multiple images of each star, but that the whirl of space compressed them inward, so close to the black hole’s shadow that they could not be seen in the simulations.
The paper can be downloaded from http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/32/6/065001/article.