With rapidly growing U.S. demand for polyurethane (PU) products, especially foam products, we will remain heavily dependent on imported oil and thus be affected by worldwide disruptions to oil supply. To reduce this dependence on oil, we must investigate domestic feedstocks such as coal for creating PU products. Battelle’s breakthrough Coal-to-PU Foam process addresses this need, while also reducing the carbon footprint of PU foam by incorporating biomass-derived feedstocks. The environmentally sound conversion of low-value ($50/ton) coal to high-value ($4,500/ton) PU foam is a unique achievement. The process uses a breakthrough, ozonation technology, which has been patented and demonstrated on a variety of U.S. coals using coal-derived liquids from coke ovens and other liquefaction technologies. The aromaticity of coal beneficially increases rigidity in PU foam products. The use of cheaper and more plentiful feedstocks combined with the simplification of the coal-to-polyol process allows a 15–20% lower selling price while generating an attractive return on investment. The polyols from Battelle’s process also have the potential for other PU applications such as for sealants and adhesives.